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the "long" way to modern biotechnology

from science to technology:
the start of modern biotechnology

from science to technology: the start of modern biotechnology
the beginning of the Green Revolution
Werner Arber discovered that bacterica defent themselves against viruses by cutting the virus DNA using special restriction enzymes.
Norman Borlaug becomes the first plant breeder to win a Nobel Prize. This marks the beginning of the Green Revolution
Daniel Nathans developed the restriction enzyme technique
Stanley Norman Cohen and Herbert Boyer perform the first successful recombinant DNA experiment
the world's first genetic engineering company (Genentech) was founded in Southern California
  1974 Norio Taniguchi coined the word "Nano-Technology"
Georges J. F. Köhler and César Milstein developed a method for producing monoclonal antibodies
Sanger and GIlbert developed a method to sequence DNA
Herbert Boyer inserted a synthetic insulin gene into E. coli
Louise Joy Brown was born, the first human baby resulting from in vitro fertilization
the starting signal for industrial biotechnology
The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that genetically altered life forms can be patented.
First biotechnology patent granted: US researchers (Cohen and Boyer) awarded a US patent that allows them to make human insulin from genetically modified bacteria
entrance to the nano world
1981 Scanning Tunneling Microscope was invented by Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer (IBM Zuerich)
First biotech drug to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration: Humulin (Genentech) for the treatment of diabetes
Kary Mullis invented polymerase chain reactions (PCR) to amplify DNA in the labratory
Automated fluorescence sequencer
USA: first genetically engineered plant (tobacco) was grown outside the laboratory
Microbes were first used to clean up oil spill
    Atomic Force Microscope was invented by IBM scientists
First federally approved gene therapy treatment
The international Human Genome Project was launched.
the age of genome editing
1991 Pavletich and Pabo presented the first engineered nuclease technology (Zinc Finger Nuclease, ZNF)
The United States Food and Drug Administration approves the first GM food: the " Flavr Savr ® " tomato .
Andrew Fire and Craig Mello discovered RNA interference (gene silencing in C. elegans)
The first mammal was cloned from a cell of an adult animal. Ian Wilmut (Roslin Institute) created the sheep Dolly
DNA microarray (DNA chip) technology was developed
Kohler, Milstein, and Jerne used monoclonal antibody (MAb) technology.
Maynard Olson and colleagues invented "yeast artifical chromosones" (YACs)  
The roundworm C. elegans became the first multi-cellular organism to have its genome completely sequenced.  
German and Swiss scientists developed golden rice  
Completion of a "rough draft" of the human genome in the Human Genome Project .  
Celera Genomics and the Human Genome Project create a draft of the human genome sequence .  
Rice becomes the first crop to have its genome decoded.  
The Human Genome Project was completed  
Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute uses modified sinoatrial node (SAN) heart genes to create the first viral pacemaker in guinea pigs  
The billionth biotech acre is planted ( 8.5 million farmers /N 21 countries  
  2009 transcription activator-like effector nuclease, or TALEN  
J. Craig Venter Institute created the first fully synthetic, self-replicating bacterial cell (named Synthia)  
  2012 clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs)  
  2014 four billion acres of biotech crops  have now been planted globally  
  2016 Fungus is the first organism engineered by CRISPR-Cas9 to get a green-light from the U.S. government  




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