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the "long" way to modern biotechnology

the dawn of biochemistry

the dawn of biochemistry
by combining the german words 'biologie' (biology) and 'chemie' (chemistry) Felix Hoppe Seyler coined the word 'biochemie' (biochemistry)
Thomas Hunt Morgan discovered that genes are located on chromosones
Károly Erek first used the word biotechnology
Frederick Banting and Charles Best discovered insulin as a treatment for diabetes
Alexander Fleming noticed that a certain mould could stop the duplication of bacteria, leading to the first antibiotic: penicillin
Fred Griffin probed that genetic material could be moved from one strain of bacteria to another
Andrei Nikolaevitch Belozersky isolated pure DNA for the first time.
Erwin Chargaff showed that in DNA the number of units of adenine equaled those of thumine and the number of units of cytosine equaled those of guanine.
A. Justin coined the term genetic engineering
Beadle and Tatum proposed the "One gene produces one enzyme" hypothesis
Oswald Theodore Avery isolates pure DNA.
Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins established through X-ray crystallography that DNA is a double helix
James D. Watson and Francis Crick described the structure of DNA (nature: April 25, 1953 - by the way, this article comprises slightly more than one page)
Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase proved viruses replicated using DNA (DNA as the hereditary material)
Hayes discovered plasmid DNA, circular pieces of DNA found in bacteria
the vision of nanotechnology
"There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom" : lecture given by Richard Feynman at an American Physical Society meeting at Caltech
Walter Gilbert discovered the mechanism of gene expression through his study of messenger RNA
Planting of high-yield wheat varieties (later known as 'Green Revolution' grains) begins in Mexico.
Arber, Nathans, and Smith discovered bacterial restriction enzymes that cut DNA.


Marshall W. Nirenberg and Har Gobind Khorana win the Nobel Prize for deciphering the genetic codes of the 20 amino acids,




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